Showing posts with label process heat. Show all posts
Showing posts with label process heat. Show all posts

Saturated Steam Table

A saturated steam table shows temperatures and pressures for water at the liquid/vapor transition (i.e. points lying along the liquid/vapor interface shown in a phase change diagram), as well as enthalpy values for the water and steam under those conditions. The sensible heat of water is the amount of thermal energy per pound necessary to raise water’s temperature from the freezing point to the boiling point. The latent heat of vapor is the amount of energy per pound necessary to convert water (liquid) into steam (vapor). The total heat is the enthalpy of steam (thermal energy per pound) between the listed condition in the table and the freezing temperature of water.

By definition a saturated steam table does not describe steam at temperatures greater than the boiling point. For such purposes, a superheated steam table is necessary.

Mead O'Brien
(800) 892-2769

Saturated Steam Table

Reprinted from "Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation" by Tony R. Kuphaldt – under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License.

Data for this saturated steam table was taken from Thermal Properties of Saturated and Superheated Steam by Lionel Marks and Harvey Davis, published in 1920 by Longmans, Green, and Company.

Steam Trapping and Steam Tracing Equipment

Inverted Bucket Steam Trap
Inverted Bucket Steam Trap
An efficient steam trap wastes less energy, which means you burn less fuel and reduce emissions. The results are energy savings and a cleaner, healthier environment. By helping companies manage energy, Armstrong steam traps are also helping protect the world we all share.

As a steam trap wears, it loses efficiency and begins to waste energy. But Armstrong inverted bucket traps last years longer than other traps. They operate more efficiently longer because the inverted bucket is the most reliable steam trap operating principle known.

Clearly, the longer an efficient trap lasts, the more it reduces energy wasted, fuel burned and pollutants released into the air. It’s an all-around positive situation that lets the environment win, too. Bringing energy down to earth in your facility could begin with a renewed focus on your steam system, especially your steam traps. Said another way: Zeroing in your steam traps is an easy way to pay less money for energy—and more attention to the environment.

Companies around the world are beginning to realize that rather than being separate challenges, energy and the environment are and have always been a single mission. And that quality management in one area will surely impact the other.

The catalog below should be utilized as a guide for the installation and operation of steam trapping equipment. Selection or installation should always be accompanied by competent technical assistance or advice. Armstrong and its local representatives are available for consultation and technical assistance. We encourage you to contact your Armstrong Representative for complete details.

Inverted Submerged Bucket Steam Traps: How They Work

Diagram of the Armstrong Inverted Bucket Trap
Cutaway diagram of the Armstrong Inverted Bucket Trap.
The inverted submerged bucket steam trap is a mechanical trap that operates on the difference in density between steam and water. Steam entering the inverted submerged bucket causes the bucket to float and close the discharge valve.

Condensate entering the trap changes the bucket to a weight that sinks and opens the trap valve to discharge the condensate. Unlike other mechanical traps, the inverted bucket also vents air and carbon dioxide continuously at steam temperature.

This simple principle of condensate removal was introduced by Armstrong International in 1911. Years of improvement in materials and manufacturing have made today’s Armstrong inverted bucket traps virtually unmatched in operating efficiency, dependability and long life.

For more information on Armstrong steam traps, visit or call (800) 892-2769.

The Application of Heat in Industrial Applications

Heat exchanger
Heat exchanger (courtesy of Armstrong)
The measurement and control of heat related to fluid processing is a vital industrial function, and relies on regulating the heat content of a fluid to achieve a desired temperature and outcome.

The manipulation of a substance's heat content is based on the central principle of specific heat, which is a measure of heat energy content per unit of mass. Heat is a quantified expression of a systems internal energy. Though heat is not considered a fluid, it behaves, and can be manipulated, in some similar respects. Heat flows from points of higher temperature to those of lower temperature, just as a fluid will flow from a point of higher pressure to one of lower pressure. 

A heat exchanger provides an example of how the temperature of two fluids can be manipulated to regulate the flow or transfer of heat. Despite the design differences in heat exchanger types, the basic rules and objectives are the same. Heat energy from one fluid is passed to another across a barrier that prevents contact and mixing of the two fluids. By regulating temperature and flow of one stream, an operator can exert control over the heat content, or temperature, of another. These flows can either be gases or liquids. Heat exchangers raise or lower the temperature of these streams by transferring heat between them. 

Recognizing the heat content of a fluid as a representation of energy helps with understanding how the moderation of energy content can be vital to process control. Controlling temperature in a process can also provide control of reactions among process components, or physical properties of fluids that can lead to desired or improved outcomes.
Heat can be added to a system in a number of familiar ways. Heat exchangers enable the use of steam, gas, hot water, oil, and other fluids to deliver heat energy. Other methods may employ direct contact between a heated object (such as an electric heating element) or medium and the process fluid. While these means sound different, they all achieve heat transfer by applying at least one of three core transfer mechanisms: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction involves the transfer of heat energy through physical contact among materials. Shell and tube heat exchangers rely on the conduction of heat by the tube walls to transfer energy between the fluid inside the tube and the fluid contained within the shell. Convection relates to heat transfer due to the movement of fluids, the mixing of fluids with differing temperature. Radiant heat transfer relies on electromagnetic waves and does not require a transfer medium, such as air or liquid. These central explanations are the foundation for the various processes used to regulate systems in industrial control environments.

The manner in which heat is to be applied or removed is an important consideration in the design of a process system. The ability to control temperature and rate at which heat is transferred in a process depends in large part on the methods, materials, and media used to accomplish the task. 

A Modern Industrial Hot Water System Saves Money Through Efficiency and Safety

Hot water heating systems
State-of-the-art hot water heating systems
improve efficiency and safety, and
increase production and yield.
The use of hot water systems for process heating pre-dates World War II, and initiated an ongoing effort for engineered materials to accommodate higher pressures and temperatures. After WWII the need for instantaneous hot water generation, distribution and precise temperature control for industrial applications continued to rise. High temperature hot water systems became increasingly popular because they were relatively inexpensive to install, provided long operating life, and were inexpensive to operate and maintain. Their closed system design made these systems more tolerant to corrosion and scale, while the use of pumps eliminated the need for complex piping for managing condensate.

By developing a comprehensive strategy that includes state-of-the-art water heaters, water temperature controls, hose stations, variable frequency drive (VFD) pump assemblies and ancillary accessories such as storage tanks, and pressure-reducing valves, processing plants can improve efficiency and safety, and increase production and yield.

Advanced hot water heating systems typically include:
  • Steam/water hot water systems with digital control technology and instantaneous heat exchanger design—shell and tube or plate and frame.
  • Industrial mixing center with digital control valves, pre-piped as an IMC with requisite installation components for compact design and ease of installation.
  • Digital control valves for delivering hot water immediately on demand, and maintained at precision temperatures (+/-1°F, +/-0.5°C).
  • VFD pump assemblies application-engineered and configured for your site.
  • Hot & cold water hose stations with thermostatic mixing valves that replaces the old, basic Y as the temperature controller.
The brochure below, courtesy of Armstrong International, provides more insight where specific components are used.

Understanding & Solving Heat Transfer Equipment Stall

heat transfer equipment
Heat transfer loop
Stall can most easily be defined as a condition in which heat transfer equipment is unable to drain condensate and becomes flooded due to insufficient system pressure.

Stall occurs primarily in heat transfer equipment where the steam pressure is modulated to obtain a desired output (i.e. product temperature). The pressure range of any such equipment ( coils, shell & tube, etc....) can be segmented into two (2) distinct operational modes, Operating and Stall.

Operating: In the upper section of the pressure range the operating pressure (OP) of the equipment is greater than the back pressure (BP) present at the discharge of the steam trap. Therefore a positive pressure differential across the trap exists allowing for condensate to flow from the equipment to the condensate return line.

Stall: In the lower section of the pressure range the operating pressure (OP) of the equipment is less than or equal to the back pressure (BP) present at the discharge of the steam trap. Therefore a negative or no pressure differential exists, this does not allow condensate to be discharged to the return line and the condensate begins to collect and flood the equipment.

You can read the entire Armstrong technical paper below.

Visit this link to download your own copy of Armstrong Fluid Handling: Understanding and Solving Equipment Stall.

What is this “steam” thing?

Reprinted with permission from InTech Magazine March-April Issue
Author: Steve Huffman VP Marketing & Business Development, Mead O'Brien

This article began as a coy reply to Bill Lydon’s interesting “Talk to Me” column ( about Leonardo da Vinci’s accomplishments as an artist applying engineering principles to create engineered works of art. Lydon noted that da Vinci saw science and art as complementary rather than as distinct disciplines. I stated that the word “STEAM,” really STEM + art, was not a new concept. The most recent iteration started sometime within the first decade of the 21st century, gaining traction with the efforts of such influencers as the Rhode Island School of Design beginning in 2010. Lawmakers with whom the Automation Federation met while advocating for our profession on Capitol Hill saw the concept as a way to reach elementary school children who would not otherwise be interested in math, science, and engineering.

My point was why use the word “steam” and create confusion with the engine of the American industrial revolution—and still the most efficient turbine driver and heat transfer media in prominent use to this day? Ironically, I find a declining knowledge base regarding steam systems used in industry, especially in process control, as the baby boomers are now retiring at very high levels. New practitioners, automation or otherwise, who either work on or are charged with engineering or maintaining these utility systems for process are generally not well prepared from a knowledge or educational perspective. This issue really adds to the negative financial impact that poorly designed or poorly maintained steam systems contribute to product quality, throughput, and energy loss.

For the artistic, it seems someone should have realized that the word, with all its thermodynamic glory, was already taken. So is it right to add “art” to the critical-thinking process of STEM and to the engineering curriculum to add another dimension to the student’s education? A number of artists and engineers disagree, but mainly because they only view their “discipline” as a tool that makes the other “discipline” superior. In short, it does go both ways, and purists on both sides probably resent that art and engineering go together. Because we come from the engineering side of the fence, I feel that art probably does broaden the horizons of engineers, but bringing art into engineering certainly does nothing to diminish art in and of itself. As art teaches us, there are many ways to comprehend the same thing.

In my own experience with the brewing industry in St. Louis over the past 40 years, the process mix includes engineering, science, and the application of the art of brewing, which goes back to the ancient Greeks. Modern brewing evolved over the past 150 years with people from those disciplines working together, some even using the “glue” of automation to turn their processes into highly automated, high production, and sophisticated dynamos with dozens of new products released yearly, all of them starting with four basic ingredients.

I project that art in STEM (STEM+A if I were chief acronym maker) is absolutely necessary for automation professionals to better appreciate process and better visualize what the future holds. It is also essential for thinking more abstractly, and in homage to the next big thing, developing a critical eye to analyze, put to practical use, and translate from “production-speak” to meaningful “management-speak” the massive amount of data coming our way with the Industrial Internet of Things revolution of which we are on the cusp. Dealing with disruptive technologies in process and factory automation will require digital skills far in excess of what we can even see on the horizon today. It seems that steam may be creating some buzz, but in the future the real kinetic energy will be created by digital engineers.

Steam Trap Testing Guide for Energy Conservation

steam trap testing schedule
Annual steam trap testing schedule

Below is a steam trap testing guide (courtesy of Armstrong International) to maximize efficiency and conserve energy. This guide discusses:
  • Steam Trap Testing Procedure 
  • Tips On Listening 
  • Inverted Bucket 
  • Float & Thermostatic Trap 
  • Disc Trap 
  • Thermostatic Trap 
  • Sub-Cooling Trap 
  • Traps on Superheated Steam
CAUTION: Valves in steam lines should be opened or closed by authorized personnel only, following the correct procedure for specific system conditions. Always isolate steam trap from pressurized supply and return lines before opening for inspection or repair. Isolate strainer from pressurized system before opening to clean. Failure to follow correct procedures can result in system damage and possible bodily injury.