Showing posts with label Foxboro. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Foxboro. Show all posts

Tuesday, May 29, 2018

Basic Set up of the Schneider Electric / Foxboro LG01 Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter

Foxboro LG01 Guided Wave Radar Level TransmitterThe Foxboro Model LG01 Radar level measurement transmitter provides very accurate and reliable level measurement for the widest choice of installation and application.

Guided Wave Radar Technology 

Electromagnetic pulses are emitted and guided along a probe. These pulses are reflected back at the product surface. The distance is calculated by measuring this transit time. This device is perfect for high-end applications. It is suitable for applications with foam, dust, vapor, agitated, turbulent or boiling surfaces with rapid level changes.

This video demonstrates the quick set up of the instrument. 

Monday, March 26, 2018

Process Instrumentation and Noise

Protect instrumentation from electrical noise.
Protect process instrumentation from
electrical noise.
Instrument noise, and eliminating instrument noise, is important to consider in process control instrumentation. Noise represents variations in process variable measurement that is not reflective of actual changes occurring in the process variable. Typically, electrical devices such as high voltage wiring, electric motors, relays, contactors, and radio transmitters are the primary sources of instrument noise.

No matter the cause for the process noise, the measurement signal in the process is being distorted and is not reflecting the true state of the process at a certain time. Accuracy and precision of process measurements are negatively affected by noise, and can also contribute to errors in control system. Controller output can reflect the noise affecting a process variable.

Grounding allows for the reduction of noise stemming from electrical systems. Shielded cabling and separating signal cabling from other wiring, as well as replacing and repairing sensors, allows for noise reduction. Low-pass filters are a way to compensate for noise, and much of the instrumentation used in process systems incorporates noise dampening features automatically. Determining the best kind of filter to use depends heavily on cut-off frequency, alpha value, or time constant.

The ideal low-pass filter would eliminate all frequencies above the cutoff frequency while allowing every frequency below the cut-off frequency to be unaffected. However, this ideal filter is only achievable mathematically, while real applications must approximate the ideal filter. They calculate a finite impulse response, and also must delay the signal for a bit of time. To achieve better filter accuracy, a longer delay is needed so that the filter computation “sees” a bit further into the future. The calibration of these filters heavily relies on the desired accuracy level of the process, while also taking specific steps in calibration to best fit a particular process.

Noise is important to mitigate because the noise observed while measuring the process variable can produce “chatter” in the final control element of a process. The resulting “chatter” increases the wear of mechanical control elements, such as valves, and will generate additional cost for the process as a whole. The filtered signal lagging behind the dynamic response of the unfiltered signal is a result of the filtered signal’s increased dead time, meaning that signal filters add a delay in sensing the true process state. The solution is to find a mid-point between signal smoothing and information delay, which allows for elimination of noise while not negatively affecting the speed by which information is delivered.

For question about any process control application, or challenge, visit https://meadobrien.com or call (800) 892-2769

Wednesday, January 24, 2018

Two Point Calibration of the Foxboro IDP-10-T Pressure Transmitter

The Foxboro / Schneider Electric I/A Series Electronic Pressure Transmitters are a complete family of D/P Cell, gauge, absolute, multirange, multivariable, and premium performance transmitters, as well as transmitters with remote or direct connect seals, all using field-proven silicon strain gauge sensors and common topworks.

A common HART electronics module is used for all HART Pressure Transmitters. Also, because all configuration and calibration data is stored in the sensor, you can replace a HART module with another HART module without transmitter reconfiguration or recalibration.

The video below provides step-by-step instructions for two point calibration of the IDP-10-T pressure transmitter.

Sunday, November 26, 2017

Understanding Vortex Shedding Flow Technology

Foxboro Vortex Shedding Flowmeter
Foxboro Vortex Shedding Flowmeter.
Notice the shedder bar in the flow path.
Photograph of vortice
Photograph of vortices
(credit Jürgen Wagner via Wikipedia)
Vortex shedding flowmeters are a type of flowmeter available to the process industry for the consistent evaluation of flow rates. These flowmeters measure the volumetric flow rate of media such as steam flowing in pipes, gases, and low viscosity liquids, boasting both versatility and dependability. Since they have no moving parts, they are impervious to the kind of wear turbine or mechanical meters experience.

Principles of Operation
A "shedder" bar (also known as a bluff body) in the path of
Animation of vortex creation
Animation of vortices
(credit Cesareo de La Rosa Siqueira
via Wikipedia)
the flowing fluid produces flow disturbances called vortices. The resulting vortex trail is predictable and proportional to the fluid flow rate. This phenomena is know as the "Von Kármán vortex street" (see illustrations to the right). Sensitive electronic sensors downstream of the shedder bar measures the frequency of the vortices and produce a small electrical pulse with every vortex created. The electrical pulses also also proportional to fluid velocity and is the basis for calculating a volumetric flow rate, using the cross sectional area of the flow measuring device.

Typical Areas of Use
Vortex shedding flowmeters are used on steam, cryogenic liquids, hydrocarbons, air, feed water, and industrial gases.

Applications to Avoid
Splitting higher viscosity fluids into concordant vertices is extremely difficult due to the internal friction present, so using vortex shedding flowmeters on high viscosity media should be avoided. Also, avoid applications with low flow rates and low Reynolds Numbers, as the vortices created are unstable.

Consideration for Use
Consideration must be given to applications with low Reynolds numbers, as the generation of vortices declines at critical points of reduced velocity. Low pressure can also be a problem in this regard. Users must take Reynolds number, velocity, and density into consideration before choosing a vortex shedding flow meter. As always, it's best to discuss your application with an knowledgable support professional before specifying, purchasing, or installing this type of flowmeter.

Watch the video below for more information on vortex flow technology.


For more information on  vortex shedding flowmeters, visit https://www.meadobrien.com or call (800) 892-2769.

Monday, October 23, 2017

Foxboro IMT25 Flow Transmitter Quick Start Video and IOM - Everything You Need

Model IMT25
The Foxboro® brand Model IMT25 Intelligent Magnetic Flow Transmitter uses a pulsed dc technique to excite the Models 8000A, 8300, 9100A, 9200A, 9300A, and 2800 Magnetic Flowtube coils, and convert the low level signal voltage to a digital, 4 to 20 mA, or pulse output.

FEATURES
  • Digital precision, stability, and resolution ensure top measurement performance.
  • Remote communication with HART communication protocol. (For FOUNDATION Fieldbus protocol, refer to PSS 1-6F5 B.)
  • Remote configuration using PC-based configurator or HART Communicator.
  • Local configuration using optional integral keypad, with backlighted, 2-line, LCD display.
  • Scaled pulse or frequency output.
  • Unidirectional or bidirectional flow.
  • Analog output programmable for unidirectional, bidirectional, or multiple input range.
  • Relay outputs with programmable functionality for alarms.
  • Contact inputs with programmable functionality for remote operation.
  • Automatic and manual zero lock.
  • Online diagnostic help.
  • Software configuration and totals protected in nonvolatile memory in the event of power loss.
  • Compact single or dual compartment.
  • Enclosure meets NEMA 4X and IEC IP66.
  • Field test mode using Foxboro Model IMTSIM Magnetic Flowtube Simulator.

Monday, August 21, 2017

HART Communication Protocol - Process Instrumentation

HART process instruments
Process instrument with HART protocol (Foxboro)
The Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol, also known as HART, is a communications protocol which ranks high in popularity among industry standards for process measurement and control connectivity. HART combines analog and digital technology to function as an automation protocol. A primary reason for the primacy of HART in the process control industry is the fact that it functions in tandem with the long standing and ubiquitous process industry standard 4-20 mA current loops. The 4-20 mA loops are simple in both construction and functionality, and the HART protocol couples with their technology to maintain communication between controllers and industry devices. PID controllers, SCADA systems, and programmable logic controllers all utilize HART in conjunction with 4-20 mA loops.

HART instruments have the capacity to perform in two main modes of operation: point to point, also known as analog/digital mode, and multi-drop mode. The point to point mode joins digital signals with the aforementioned 4-20 mA current loop in order to serve as signal protocols between the controller and a specific measuring instrument. The polling address of the instrument in question is designated with the number "0". A signal specified by the user is designated as the 4-20 mA signal, and then other signals are overlaid on the 4-20 mA signal. A common example is an indication of pressure being sent as a 4-20 mA signal to represent a range of pressures; temperature, another common process control variable, can also be sent digitally using the same wires. In point to point, HART’s digital instrumentation functions as a sort of digital current loop interface, allowing for use over moderate distances.

HART in multi-drop mode differs from point to point. In multi-drop mode, the analog loop current is given a fixed designation of 4 mA and multiple instruments can participate in a single signal loop. Each one of the instruments participating in the signal loop need to have their own unique address.

Since the HART protocol is a standardized process control industry technology, each specific manufacturer using HART is assigned a unique identification number. This allows for devices participating in the HART protocol to be easily identified upon first interaction with the protocol. Thanks to the open protocol nature, HART has experienced successive revisions in order to enhance the performance and capabilities of the system relating to process control. The standardization of “smart” implementation, along with the ability to function with the legacy 4-20 mA technology and consistent development, has made HART a useful and popular component of the process measurement and control industry framework.

Have a question about HART? Contact Mead O'Brien by visiting this link, or call
(800) 892-2769.

Thursday, June 29, 2017

Common Ways to Measure Steam Flow

Steam Measurement
For steam, energy is primarily contained in the latent heat and, to a lesser extent, the sensible heat of the fluid. The latent heat energy is released as the steam condenses to water. Additional sensible heat energy may be released if the condensate is further lowered in temperature. In steam measuring, the energy content of the steam is a function of the steam mass, temperature and pressure. Even after the steam releases its latent energy, the hot condensate still retains considerable heat energy, which may or may not be recovered (and used) in a constructive manner. The energy manager should become familiar with the entire steam cycle, including both the steam supply and the condensate return.

When compared to other liquid flow measuring, the measuring of steam flow presents one of the most challenging measuring scenarios. Most steam flowmeters measure a velocity or volumetric flow of the steam and, unless this is done carefully, the physical properties of steam will impair the ability to measure and define a mass flow rate accurately.

Steam is a compressible fluid; therefore, a reduction in pressure results in a reduction in density. Temperature and pressure in steam lines are dynamic. Changes in the system’s dynamics, control system operation and instrument calibration can result in considerable differences between actual pressure/temperature and a meter’s design parameters. Accurate steam flow measurement generally requires the measurement of the fluid’s temperature, pressure, and flow. This information is transmitted to an electronic device or flow computer (either internal or external to the flow meter electronics) and the flow rate is corrected (or compensated) based on actual fluid conditions.

The temperatures associated with steam flow measurement are often quite high. These temperatures can affect the accuracy and longevity of measuring electronics. Some measuring technologies use close-tolerance moving parts that can be affected by moisture or impurities in the steam. Improperly designed or installed components can result in steam system leakage and impact plant safety. The erosive nature of poor-quality steam can damage steam flow sensing elements and lead to inaccuracies and/or device failure.

The challenges of measuring steam can be simplified measuring the condensed steam, or condensate. The measuring of condensate (i.e., high-temperature hot water) is an accepted practice, often less expensive and more reliable than steam measuring. Depending on the application, inherent inaccuracies in condensate measuring stem from unaccounted for system steam losses. These losses are often difficult to find and quantify and thus affect condensate measurement accuracy.

Volumetric measuring approaches used in steam measuring can be broken down into two operating designs:
  1. Differential pressure
  2. Velocity measuring technologies.

DIFFERENTIAL


For steam three differential pressure flowmeters are highlighted: orifice flow meter, annubar flow meter, and spring-loaded variable area flow meter. All differential pressure flowmeters rely on the velocity-pressure relationship of flowing fluids for operation.

Orifice Flow Meter
Orifice Flow Meter
(courtesy of Foxboro)

Differential Pressure – Orifice Flow Meter


Historically, the orifice flow meter is one of the most commonly used flowmeters to measure steam flow. The orifice flow meter for steam functions identically to that for natural gas flow. For steam measuring, orifice flow flowmeters are commonly used to monitor boiler steam production, amounts of steam delivered to a process or tenant, or in mass balance activities for efficiency calculation or trending.


Differential Pressure – Annubar Flow Meter


The annubar flow meter (a variation of the simple pitot tube) also takes advantage of the velocity-pressure relationship of flowing fluids. The device causing the change in pressure is a pipe inserted into the steam flow.

Differential Pressure – Spring-Loaded Variable Area Flow Meter


The spring-loaded variable area flow meter is a variation of the rotameter. There are alternative configurations but in general, the flow acts against a spring-mounted float or plug. The float can be shaped to give a linear relationship between differential pressure and flow rate. Another variation of the spring-loaded variable area flow meter is the direct in-line variable area flow meter, which uses a strain gage sensor on the spring rather than using a differential pressure sensor.


VELOCITY


The two main type of velocity flowmeters for steam flow, turbine and vortex shedding, both sense some flow characteristic directly proportional to the fluid’s velocity.

Velocity –  Turbine Flow Meter


A multi-blade impellor-like device is located in, and horizontal to, the fluid stream in a turbine flow meter. As the fluid passes through the turbine blades, the impellor rotates at a speed related to the fluid’s velocity. Blade speed can be sensed by a number of techniques including magnetic pick-up, mechanical gears, and photocell. The pulses generated as a result of blade rotation are directly proportional to fluid velocity, and hence flow rate.
Vortex Flowmeter
Vortex Flowmeter
(courtesy of Foxboro)

Velocity – Vortex-Shedding Flow Meter


A vortex-shedding flow meter senses flow disturbances around a stationary body (called a bluff body) positioned in the middle of the fluid stream. As fluid flows around the bluff body, eddies or vortices are created downstream; the frequencies of these vortices are directly proportional to the fluid velocity.

For more information on process steam management, contact Mead O'Brien by visiting http://www.meadobrien.com or call (800) 892-2769,

Friday, February 10, 2017

What are Magnetic Flowmeters and How Do They Work?

Magnetic Flowmeter
Magnetic Flowmeter
(courtesy of Foxboro Schneider Electric)
Crucial aspects of process control include the ability to accurately determine qualities and quantities of materials. In terms of appraising and working with fluids (such as liquids, steam, and gases) the flowmeter is a staple tool, with the simple goal of expressing the delivery of a subject fluid in a quantified manner. Measurement of media flow velocity can be used, along with other conditions, to determine volumetric or mass flow. The magnetic flowmeter, also called a magmeter, is one of several technologies used to measure fluid flow.

In general, magnetic flowmeters are sturdy, reliable devices able to withstand hazardous environments while returning precise measurements to operators of a wide variety of processes. The magnetic flowmeter has no moving parts. The operational principle of the device is powered by Faraday's Law, a fundamental scientific understanding which states that a voltage will be induced across any conductor moving at a right angle through a magnetic field, with the voltage being proportional to the velocity of the conductor. The principle allows for an inherently hard-to-measure quality of a substance to be expressed via the magmeter. In a magmeter application, the meter produces the magnetic field referred to in Faraday's Law. The conductor is the fluid. The actual measurement of a magnetic flowmeter is the induced voltage corresponding to fluid velocity. This can be used to determine volumetric flow and mass flow when combined with other measurements.  

The magnetic flowmeter technology is not impacted by temperature, pressure, or density of the subject fluid. It is however, necessary to fill the entire cross section of the pipe in order to derive useful volumetric flow measurements. Faraday's Law relies on conductivity, so the fluid being measured has to be electrically conductive. Many hydrocarbons are not sufficiently conductive for a flow measurement using this method, nor are gases.

Magnetic Flowmeter and transmitter
Magnetic Flowmeter and controller.
(courtesy of Foxboro Schneider Electric)
Magmeters apply Faraday's law by using two charged magnetic coils; fluid passes through the magnetic field produced by the coils. A precise measurement of the voltage generated in the fluid will be proportional to fluid velocity. The relationship between voltage and flow is theoretically a linear expression, yet some outside factors may present barriers and complications in the interaction of the instrument with the subject fluid. These complications include a higher amount of voltage in the liquid being processed, and coupling issues between the signal circuit, power source, and/or connective leads of both an inductive and capacitive nature.

In addition to salient factors such as price, accuracy, ease of use, and the size-scale of the flowmeter in relation to the fluid system, there are multiple reasons why magmeters are the unit of choice for certain applications. They are resistant to corrosion, and can provide accurate measurement of dirty fluids ñ making them suitable for wastewater measurement. As mentioned, there are no moving parts in a magmeter, keeping maintenance to a minimum. Power requirements are also low. Instruments are available in a wide range of configurations, sizes, and construction materials to accommodate various process installation requirements. 

As with all process measurement instruments, proper selection, configuration, and installation are the real keys to a successful project. Share your flow measurement challenges of all types with a process measurement specialist, combining your process knowledge with their product application expertise to develop an effective solution.

Sunday, November 20, 2016

A Magmeter Designed to Withstand the Most Common Failure Modes

Foxboro magnetic flowmeters
Foxboro magnetic flowmeter and transmitter.
When it comes to the application of Magmeters, the biggest problem our customers have is reliability. These devices commonly breakdown due to the corrosive and abrasive materials they measure, and the effects of the internal pressure of the liquid flowing through them.

Foxboro magnetic flowmeters, however, solve these industry-wide issues with superior construction, compact design, the widest selection of options, combined with low power consumption.

Foxboro magnetic flow tubes utilize a superior electrode. By using large electrodes, the flowmeter output is less sensitive to the effects of entrained air, and unaffected by higher internal pressures.

Rugged Teflon liners are resistant to chemical attack which makes it possible to use the Foxboro magnetic flowmeter in hard to handle corrosive liquids and slurries.

Finally, Foxboro magnetic flowmeters offer system  accuracy of plus or minus 0.25 percent of reading.

Foxboro flow tubes can be paired with there IMT 25 and IMT 96 transmitter for complete compact system that provides unequalled durability measurement accuracy and performance with virtually no maintenance and minimal replacement cost covering the widest choice of industry applications available.

For more information on Foxboro magnetic flowmeters please contact Mead O'Brien at (800) 892-2769 or visit http://www.meadobrien.com.

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Enhancing Cyber Security in Industrial Control Systems and Critical Infrastructure with Dynamic Endpoint Modeling

A white paper courtesy of Schneider Electric (Foxboro)

Cyber attacks against Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are on the rise, putting nations’ critical infrastructure at risk. In a paradigm shift from the traditional network security systems, a new approach — Dynamic Endpoint Modeling — learns and models the behavior of all devices on the network and triggers alerts when algorithms detect changes in learned behavior.

Read the entire white paper below.

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Foxboro Vortex Flow Meters

Foxboro vortex flow meterThe patented family of Foxboro vortex flowmeters has the high accuracy and rangeability of positive displacement and turbine flowmeters without the mechanical complexity and high cost. Maximum rangeability up to 100:1 is possible as compared to 3:1 for a nonlinear differential pressure producer (orifice plate).

Because these Flowmeters have no moving parts, they are very durable and reliable. This simplicity of design ensures low initial cost, low operating and maintenance costs, and therefore contributing to an overall low cost of ownership.



For more information, contact:

Mead O'Brien
(800) 892-2769

Thursday, June 30, 2016

A Guide to Instrumentation for Ethanol Fuel Production

ethanol plant
Ethanol plant
Ethanol, the common name for ethyl alcohol, is fuel grade alcohol that is produced through the fermentation of simple carbohydrates by yeasts. Fueled by growing environmental, economic, and national security concerns, U.S. ethanol production capacity has nearly doubled in the past six years, and the Renewable Fuel Association (RFA) projects another doubling of the industry by 2012. Ethanol can be made from renewable feedstock’s such as grain sorghum, wheat, barley, potatoes, and sugar cane. In the United States, the majority of the ethanol is produced from corn.

The two main processes to produce ethanol from corn are wet milling and dry milling.
Foxboro transmitter
Foxboro transmitter


Wet milling is more versatile as it produces a greater variety of products, including starch, corn syrup, and sucralose (such as Splenda®). However, with this versatility come higher costs in mill design, building, and operation. If ethanol is the primary product produced, dry mills offer the advantages of lower construction and operations costs, with improved production efficiency. Of the more than 70 U.S. ethanol plants currently being built, only a few are wet mills.

The efficiency of ethanol production has come a long way during the last 20 years. As more large-scale facilities come on line, ethanol producers are faced with the growing challenge of finding innovative ways to maintain profitability while this market matures. An increasingly accepted solution is process automation to assist ethanol producers in controlling product quality, output, and costs. Because sensing and analytical instrumentation represents what is essentially the eyes and ears of any automation system, careful evaluation of instrumentation, at the design phase can reduce both equipment and operating costs significantly, while improving overall manufacturing effectiveness.

The following document, courtesy of Foxboro, provides a good overview of instrumentation and the production of ethanol.

Sunday, May 8, 2016

A Better Alternative to Magmeter for Unpolished Condensate Flow Measurement

Veris Accelabar
Veris Accelabar 
A large University was using magnetic flowmeters (Magmeters) to measure the flow of boiler feed water downstream of a condensate polisher. There were occasional system upsets that required the condensate polisher to be bypassed. When this happened, large amounts of debris would be released downstream and pass directly through the Magmeter, causing a build-up of foreign material on the internal sensing surfaces.

A magnetic flowmeter uses an electric current applied to a coil which produces a magnetic field. When conductive liquid flows through the magnetic field, a small voltage, proportional to the liquid velocity, is induced. As long as the interior surfaces of the Magmeter are clean and unobstructed, the meter accurately measures flow. If they get dirty or coated, all bets are off.

It was in the above mentioned upset situations where the University maintenance people were having problems. When upsets occurred, and the condensate polisher had to be by-passed, it meant the Magmeter would also have to be serviced because accuracy could no longer be guaranteed. Servicing the Magmeter was slow and costly. It meant shutting down the line, draining the pipe, removing the flowmeter, cleaning, and then putting it all back together.

Armstrong International’s Veris Group was called in for a consult. After review,  the Veris Group recommended installing an Accelabar® flow meter to offer an alternative solution that could provide reliable flow measurement regardless of an upset condition like unpolished condensate. The Accelabar provided a flow range of 22.5:1 turndown in flow, in a limited straight run scenario. In the past, two transmitters were required to provide the best accuracy across the entire range of the Accelabar. Veris was able to use the Foxboro IDP 10S with its FoxCal™ technology in order to have a combined percent of rate accuracy solution.

The new transmitter installation has 11 separate calibrations loaded into the device. As the differential pressure from the primary element is measured, the transmitter chooses the correct calibration curve. Veris’ solution delivered performance that was previously unattainable with a single differential pressure transmitter.

The Accelabar and Foxboro combined to be best solution, and the Accelabar flow meter is now the University's standard for the boiler feed water measurements.

For more information, contact:

Mead O'Brien, Inc.
10800 Midwest Industrial Blvd
St Louis,  MO 63132
314-423-5161
314-423-5707
www.meadobrien.com

Friday, April 29, 2016

Choose Guided Wave Radar for Your Challenging Process Level Application

Guided Wave Radar transmitters (GWR)
Guided Wave
Radar Transmitter
Courtesy of
Foxboro/Schneider
Electric
Designed to perform continuous level measurement in a wide range of industries and applications, Guided Wave Radar transmitters (GWR) are unaffected by changes in temperature, specific gravity, pressure and with no need to recalibrate, offering a highly available measurement at low maintenance cost. GWR transmitters provide level measurement solutions in a variety of process applications, providing a universal radar measurement solution for all liquids including corrosive, viscous, sticky and other difficult media such as foam and turbulent surfaces, and solids.

Electromagnetic pulses are emitted and guided along a probe.  These pulses are reflected back at the product surface.  The distance is calculated by measuring this transit time. This device is perfect for high-end applications.  It is suitable for applications with foam, dust, vapor, agitated, turbulent or boiling surfaces with rapid level changes.

Common features include:
Easy configuration via digital communication; Wide selection of materials facilitates service under harsh/corrosive conditions; Solutions for density/pressure variations and rapid level changes; Empty Tank Spectrum filtering; Quick Noise scanning reduces false radar reflections.

Applications: Steam Generation /Boiler Drum; Oil/Water Separator; BioDiesel Production; Overflow Protection; Interface and Density; Process tanks; Storage tanks; Polyester/Nylon fiber production; Claus Process


For more information on Guided Wave Radar level instruments, contact:

Mead O'Brien
(800) 892-2769
www.meadobrien.com

Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Coriolis Flowmeter Reduces Sucrose Losses with Better Molasses Production at Sugar Mill

Molasses Production at Sugar Mill
Molasses Production at Sugar Mill
A sugar mill typically loses between one and two percent of its incoming sucrose to factors such as poor clarification, sugar crystal elongation, reduced crystal growth rates, filter cake loss, and loss to molasses. Of these, loss to molasses is most significant — and one of the most difficult to prevent. Loss to molasses results from inaccurate flow measurement that causes more than the required amount of sucrose to pass into the molasses recipe. Wasting valuable sucrose can directly affect profitability of molasses batch yields, so new strategies to control this loss are constantly being investigated.

Improved control begins with a reliable measurement of molasses production, but getting that is indeed a challenge. Estimating undetermined sugar loss to within 0.1 percent, for example, requires molasses loss measurement that is accurate to at least one percent.

There are a number of methods that have been employed to measure molasses quantities in sugar mills around the world, each with distinct advantages and limitations. Measuring storage tank levels on a regular basis is probably the simplest method, but readings are inconsistent and unreliable. The error in the mass estimate affects the undetermined loss directly. Further complicating accuracy are chemical reactions that produce carbon dioxide, which affects both density and tank levels.

Another method is production tank dipping, which involves detecting changes in ow based on changes in torque at various measurement points. While this may be adequate for reporting on a volume basis, most molasses production balance is based on mass. Also, molasses is usually aerated, which creates two-phase flow conditions, further compromising density and accuracy.

Foxboro Coriolis Flowmeter
Foxboro Coriolis Flowmeter
Engineers at this sugar mill compared measurements made by tank dipping and batch weighing to conventional and digital Coriolis measurements at various points over a three-year period. Years earlier, they installed a competitor’s conventional Coriolis meter. Shortly after, they installed a Foxboro CFT50 digital Coriolis transmitter from Foxboro in series with the existing unit. The Foxboro meter uses digital flowtube control that overcomes flow interruption or stalling caused by two-phase flow. And finally, a short time later, as a benchmark for accuracy, they installed a set of molasses batch scales. Valve leaks notwithstanding, they assumed that the scales would provide the most faithful measure of flow.

The measurements from tank dipping were ten to fifteen percent lower than estimates obtained from either of the Coriolis meters tested.

Later, with the batch scales installed, both Coriolis meters recorded consistently higher estimates than the scales readings. On average, the Foxboro meter gave readings that were three percent higher, and the conventional meter read nine percent higher.

It was clear that the Coriolis meters followed the batch scales much more closely. This strongly indicates the unreliability of tank dipping measurements and suggests that the Coriolis meters are also more responsive to real changes in flow rate. An unanticipated result also indicated that the digital Coriolis meter might be the most responsive to sudden changes in flow rate.

While acknowledging the need for additional study, the researchers concluded that Coriolis measurement is the only suitable alternative to batch scales for measuring sucrose loss to molasses. They found that the conventional Coriolis meter tended to estimate higher than the Foxboro Coriolis meter and that the Foxboro meter had a significantly faster response time in on/off applications.

Monday, February 15, 2016

Configuring a Foxboro PH10 Sensor Using the Foxboro 876PH Transmitter

pH Sensors and ORP Sensors
pH and ORP Sensor
(courtesy of Foxboro)
The PH10 DolpHin® Series pH Sensors and ORP10 DolpHin Series ORP Sensors are suitable for a wide range of pH and ORP measurement applications. They are designed for use with Foxboro® brand 875PH, 873PH, and 873DPX Analyzers, and 876PH Intelligent Transmitters and 870ITPH Transmitters. Some can also be used with 873APH Analyzers. When used with 875PH Analyzers or 876PH and 870ITPH Transmitters, they provide the additional capability of on-line diagnostics to signal the user if any of several common sensor faults occur.

The sensors are available with a choice of temperature compensation and cable termination. They are available with an internal pre-amplifer for use up to 150 m (500 ft) and with a Smart sensor for use up to 100 m (328 ft) from the analyzer or transmitter. The sensors can be mounted to the process in a number of ways. They have a 3/4-inch external NPT connection on both the electrode and cable end. The sensors can be inserted directly into the process line or tank or mounted through a variety of accessories including bushings, tees, flow chambers, and ball valves/insertion assemblies.The sensors are available in both analog and Smart versions.

These industry-leading sensors are already proven in countless installations including chemicals, pulp & paper, all kinds of industry and municipal water/wastewater treatment, metals/mining, and food and dairy applications worldwide.

The Foxboro® brand Model 876PH is a 2-wire loop powered intelligent transmitter that, when used with appropriate electrochemical sensors, provides measurement, local display, and transmission of pH, ORP (Oxidation-Reduction Potential), or ISE (Ion Selective Electrode) concentration. The transmitter outputs a HART digital signal and a 4 to 20 mA analog output. Versions are available for use with both analog and Smart (digital) sensors.

This video demonstrates how to correctly configure a Foxboro® PH10 sensor using the Foxboro® 876PH Transmitter.



Form ore information, contact:

Mead O'Brien
www.meadobrien.com
(800) 892-2769

Wednesday, January 27, 2016

Pneumatic Instruments

pneumatic transmitters
Pneumatic transmitters
(courtesy of Foxboro)
Air pressure may be used as an alternative signaling medium to electricity. Imagine a pressure transmitter designed to output a variable air pressure according to its calibration rather than a variable electric current. Such a transmitter would have to be supplied with a source of constant-pressure compressed air instead of an electric voltage, and the resulting output signal would be conveyed to the indicator via tubing instead of wires:


The indicator in this case would be a special pressure gauge, calibrated to read in units of process pressure although actuated by the pressure of clean compressed air from the transmitter instead of directly by process fluid. The most common range of air pressure for industrial pneumatic instruments is 3 to 15 PSI. An output pressure of 3 PSI represents the low end of the process measurement scale and an output pressure of 15 PSI represents the high end of the measurement scale. Applied to the previous example of a transmitter calibrated to a range of 0 to 250 PSI, a lack of process pressure would result in the transmitter outputting a 3 PSI air signal and full process pressure would result in an air signal of 15 PSI. The face of this special “receiver” gauge would be labeled from 0 to 250 PSI, while the actual mechanism would operate on the 3 to 15 PSI range output by the transmitter. As with the 4-20 mA loop, the end-user need not know how the information gets transmitted from the process to the indicator. The 3-15 PSI signal medium is once again transparent to the operator.

Typically, a 3 PSI pressure value represents 0% of scale, a 15 PSI pressure value represents 100% of scale, and any pressure value in between 3 and 15 PSI represents a commensurate percentage in between 0% and 100%. The following table shows the corresponding current and percentage values for each 25% increment between 0% and 100%. Every instrument technician tasked with maintaining 3-15 PSI pneumatic instruments commits these values to memory, because they are referenced so often:

Using the Foxboro model 13A pneumatic differential pressure transmitter as an example, the video below highlights the major design elements of pneumatic transmitters, including an overview of "maximum working pressure" versus "maximum measurement range" pressure.

The Foxboro model 13A pneumatic d/p cell transmitters measure differential pressure and transmit a proportional pneumatic output signal.


The information above is attributed to Tony Kuphaldt and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0.

Thursday, October 15, 2015

Innovative Pressure Transmitter Automatically Selects Calibration Range

Foxboro S Series
Foxboro S Series
Typical 2-wire intelligent transmitters require the operator to manually program and use a single calibration range suited to the specific application. Not anymore. A winner of a 2015 Flow Control Innovation Award has come up with a significant change in transmitter set-up.

Foxboro, through its patented “Foxcal” firmware allows the Foxboro models IDP10S, IGP10S, IAP10S transmitters to automatically select and use any of 11 preset calibration ranges (stored in firmware). These calibration ranges cover the full pressure range of the transmitter. Upon installation, the S Series transmitter automatically selects the appropriate calibration range based on application inputs; and, if application inputs change, automatically transitions to another, more appropriate calibration range – all while maintaining a reference accuracy of 0.05%.

It is the first pressure transmitter to incorporate not only multiple calibration curves, but the ability to automatically select and transfer between them in real time. With the new technology, users have a wide-range capability with high reference accuracy for all industries requiring precise differential, gauge, and absolute pressure measurement. Additional benefits are inventory reduction and simplified tech training. Because of their wide turndown range with such high reference accuracy, adopting one model of S Series transmitter eliminates the need to inventory, learn, and maintain multiple transmitter models that handle more limited ranges (e.g., 150 psi, 800 psi, 4000 psi).

The Foxboro IDP10S datasheet can be downloaded here.

Or, you can review it online below:


For more information, contact:
Mead O’Brien
(800) 892-2769
sales@meadobrien.com
www.meadobrien.com